Geographical Position, Hormozgan
Hormozgan province covers an area of 71,193 sq. km. and is situated in the south of Iran and to the north of the Persian Gulf. The Hormoz Strait is one of the focal and vital points in the jurisdiction of this province. The various townships of Hormozgan province are the following: Abumoosa, Bandar Abbas, Bandar Lengeh, Jask, Hadji Abad, Roudan, Qeshm and Minab.
According to the census of the year 1996, the population of this province was approximately 1.06 million, of which 41.8 % dwelled in the urban areas, 57.7 in the rural vicinities and the rest were non-residents. The major portion of the province has a mountainous terrain, with the southern sector of the Zagross Mountain Range stretching out from the northwest to southeast. The same forming limestone and sandy hills, that adjoin the lower most regions and the shores of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea.
The province of Hormozgan lies in a desert to a semi-desert like region with a warm (hot) and dry climate. The coastal areas experience a warm and humid weather in summers, while moderate in winters. Rainfall is scant, but humidity along the coastal regions is on a high percentage.
History and Culture, Hormozgan
The history of Hormozgan province intermingles with the geographical aspects of the Persian Gulf. Records show that the history of the Bandar-e-Hormoz began from the times of Ardeshir Babakan. Some believe that the prosperity and flourishing of Bandar-e-Hormoz was between the years 211 - 241 AD., when it was considered as a vital center for transactions and trade in the east. In the years 661-750 AD. the territory of the Persian Gulf came under the realm of the Omayad Caliphates and later on under Abbasides. The latter took over the scene from the years 750 - 1285 AD.
In the late 8th century AD., that is when the sea-faring enterprises were at its peak, historians believed this to be on an equal level of importance in regards to the Silk Road if not out ranking it.
In the year 1497 AD., initially the colonial powers of the west under the leadership of Vasco De Gama entered the ports of the Persian Gulf. Then in the year 1506 AD. the Portuguese in order to safeguard their rights the Bandar-e-Hormoz against the Egyptian and venetian traders besieged the same. This port became the key point at this period regarding trade and commerce in the Persian Gulf region, and also in respect to the route to the spice islands.
During the Safavid era, Shah Esmail Safavid considered the aspects of regaining the control of Hormoz which was then in the hands of the Portuguese. But due to being entangled with warfare against the Ottomans was unable to do so. This led to a treaty between them that strengthened the hold of the Portuguese in the realm of the Persian Gulf for a period of time. Shah Abbas the great brought an end to this state and with the aid of the Britain expelled the Portuguese from the region.
Moreover, in the year 1004 AH. the Dutch established their commercial center in Bandar Abbas. This prompted extensive rivalry between Britain and themselves. In the late Safavid era, the government of Iran eliminated the exemption of the custom duty regarding the exports and imports carried out by Dutch, but permitted them to trade in silk in any part of the country. This coincided with the period that the Dutch constructed a fortification or a Dej (Fort) near their trading establishment in Bandar Abbas.
The ruler or governor of the Khark Island and Bandar-e-Reeg, Mir Mohana attacked the Dutch in the year 1765 AD. because of their lapse in paying their lease, which was taken as an excuse. This proved fruitful in pushing them out of the Persian Gulf. After which Britannia dominated and brought about various small Sheikhdoms that were weak on their own and this suited the purposes of Britain.
After the world war I, the Persian Gulf was an important center regarding oil and other aspects of industrial and economic resources. Thus holding a strategic position which proved eye-catching and caused foreign governments and countries to have a special attention towards this territory.